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2018年
03月10日
14:59 bbbcさん

TED-Ed1803 How do executive orders work?            (大統領令はどのように行使されるか?)

  • 英語学習資料
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大統領令とはどういう権限で、どのように行使され、権限の範囲はどこまで及ぶのか。- 
母国の標準速度なので早いが、内容は簡単で、アニメで大体わかります。
日本語字幕できちっと内容をとらえることも大切です。

TED-Edは英語学習として優れるが、これらの知識をもとに、こういう仕組みの長短を
「自分で考える」 ことにも意味があります。

学習用 対訳付き動画 ⇒http://tededjphukyu.webcrow.jp/Translation.html?869

 05分 170wpm           

字幕 : 開始後 で字幕On/Off、 で言語選択。文字の色やサイズ゙はオプションから。
.     動画を見るとき、パソコンで画面全体を拡大すると見やすい。

下記英文は ブラウザ Chrome のマウスオーバー辞書が使えます。

On January 1, 1863, Abraham Lincoln legally changed the status of over 3 million enslaved blacks across ten states from slave to free.
His Emancipation Proclamation(奴隷解放宣言) wasn't a law, or a presidential decree.
It was an executive order(大統領令). The framers(立案者) of the American Constitution made the power of executive order available to the executive branch(行政機関).

But what exactly is this tool? How does it work? And what is the extent of its power? Well, an executive order isn't a law, but it can carry the weight of one. Passing laws involves a fairly lengthy process. First, a member of Congress proposes a piece of legislation in the form of a bill. After many committees and revisions, if the bill is approved by a majority votes in Congress, that is both the House and Senate, the bill is then sent to the president for signature. If the president signs the bill, it then becomes a law.
 下院: the House (正式はthe House of Represetatives)、 上院: the Senate

An executive order, on the other hand, is something the president issues without consultation or permission from Congress. They are, however, enforced like laws, and are subject to judicial review by the court system to make sure they're within the limits of the Constitution. That means the courts have the power to invalidate any executive decisions that they determine are an overreach of the president in trying to assert power.

And once the president leaves office, if his or her successor wants to eliminate the executive order, they can do so. So when does a president use an executive order? Sometimes a president feels the need to exert power without working with Congress, and in times of crisis, quick decisions can be justified.

But most executive orders are not responses to emergencies. They're often directed towards agencies in the federal government in order to expand or contract their power. Others determine the extent to which legislation should be enforced. And sometimes, a president may use an executive order to clarify and help implement a policy that needs to be easily defined.

Some of the most famous executive orders have changed the course of American history. FDR(フランクリン・ルーズベルト) issued an executive order to establish the Works Progress Administration(雇用促進局、ニューディール政策), which helped build thousands of roads, bridges, and parks throughout the country. The WPA also employed thousands of writers, painters, sculptors, and artists to create works of art in public spaces.

Additionally, Harry Truman used an executive order to desegregate(人種差別を廃止する) the armed forces in 1948. And in 1965, Lyndon Johnson signed an executive order to establish requirements for nondiscriminatory practices in hiring and employment. Executive orders have often been used in positive and inclusive ways, but they've also been used to exclude and divide.

One of the most notable examples being FDR's(フランクリン・ルーズベルト) 1942 executive order. He gave the military authority to target predominantly Japanese-Americans, as well as German-Americans and Italian-Americans, in certain regions across the country. This executive order also removed any or all of those people into military zones, most commonly known as internment camps(強制収容所).

Beginning in the early 1960s, each president has issued roughly 300 executive orders, but FDR(フランクリン・ルーズベルト) issued over 3,500. At the other end of the spectrum, William Henry Harrison never issued an executive order, probably because his presidency only lasted 31 days. The U.S. Constitution is somewhat ambiguous(曖昧な) on the extent of the president's power. That's resulted in executive orders expanding over time. For instance, since Lyndon Johnson, presidents have begun issuing orders to create faith-based initiatives(信仰に基づく取り組み), establish federal agencies, and remove barriers for scientific research.

There are checks and balances in the U.S. political system. Congress can pass laws to counteract executive orders, and judges can halt them by deeming them unconstitutional. But in the time it takes for those things to happen, an executive order can go into effect and possibly change the course of history, for better or for worse.
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2018年
03月10日
15:00
bbbcさん

参考ニューズウィーク日本版 の 解説 (2017/2)  
    2ページで短いが分かりやすい。
    ⇒トランプ乱発「大統領令」とは? 日本人が知らない基礎知識

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